Common Neurological Problems in Children

The human brain is one of the most delicate organs in our body. Common neurological issues like autism, ADHD, epilepsy or even headaches are conditions that cause a dysfunction of the nervous system and the human brain. As a result of which humans experience psychological or physical symptoms. These symptoms depend entirely on the area of the brain involved.

The development of our brain begins as soon as our body and internal organs start taking shape in the womb. The development continues throughout infancy until adulthood. The development of the human brain begins mostly before birth however, the nerve connections do not develop until later. 

Neurological disorders have a wide range of spectrum and have several causes accompanied by complications, symptoms, and effects. All the neurological conditions involve the human nervous system which comprises the brain and the spinal cord. The nervous system is responsible to control the movement, vision and hearing abilities of the body. Symptoms and outcomes of the neurological disorder depend entirely on the area of the brain that has been prone to damage. 

Overview of the Nervous System in Kids

The nervous system in kids and adults is a complex and sophisticated system of the body that is responsible for regulating and coordinating body activities. The nervous system is made up of two primary divisions that include the Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System. 

Central Nervous System: The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord.

Peripheral Nervous System: The peripheral nervous system consists of all the neural elements. 

In addition to the spinal cord and the brain, other organs make the principal organs of the nervous system. These organs include: 
– Ears 
– Eyes 
– Sensory organs for taste and smell 
– Sensory receptors located in the joints, muscles, skin, and other parts of the body
– What are the common mishaps that can damage the nervous system? 

The nervous system is a vulnerable part of the human body. It is also exposed to various disorders that can damage it by: 
– General Infections 
– Trauma 
– Degenerations 
– Structural Defects
– Tumours 
– Blood Flow Disruption 
– Disorders of the Immune system 
– Genetic or metabolic inborn problems 
– Toxic exposures
– Drug exposures
– Common Symptoms of Nervous System Disorders

Each child may slightly experience each or some of the symptoms as different disorders cause a variety of symptoms, unrelated to others. The following are the most common symptoms of nervous system disorders. 
– Delays in general development in the child 
– Increase or reduced growth in the head size of the kid
– Sudden, unexplained changes in activity and movements of the kids 
– Lack of coordination in the body 
– Changes in mood and consciousness 
– Tremors, seizures and increased rigidity in the muscles 
– Slurred speech 
– Consistent headaches 
– Loss of feeling or tingling sensations 
– Some kids may also experience visual changes 

The symptoms of nervous system disorders/ neurological disorders in children may also seem like other health conditions. It is advised to consult a neurologist and ensure that your child sees their healthcare provider for a complete diagnosis. 

Most Common Neurological Problems in Kids 

There are a number of neurological disorders that have increasingly been recognised worldwide amongst children. Affecting the pediatric population, conditions like autism, epilepsy, brain injuries, headaches and cerebral palsy are some of the most common neurological disorders. The most common disorders found the children include: 

Autism: Increasingly being recognised as one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders between children, autism is a disease that manifests as a triad of injured impairment of verbal and non-verbal communication. Children with autism struggle with speech impairment, challenged communication skills, emotional disorders, and awkward social skills. 

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: One of the most common disorders in children, ADHD can continue from childhood to adulthood. It is a condition that if left unrecognised can make it difficult for the child to be attentive and finish tasks. ADHD can be classified as a condition that is mostly caused due to hereditary factors, poor diet and nutrition, brain injuries, and substance abuse. 

Epilepsy: A comparatively common neurological disorder that is found in people of all ages, epilepsy is a chronic condition that can be characterised by the occurrence of multiple seizures. The symptoms include severe seizures and lifestyle interventions. 

Dyslexia: Dyslexia is a common disability in kids that poses a concern to their learning abilities. In Dyslexia, kids find it hard to read properly, spell, write or even comprehend what they learn. If diagnosed early, children with Dyslexia can read to above their levels in learning. 

Dr RK Jain is a specialist neurologist in India who helps children with their neurological conditions. Early detection of each condition is essential to ensure it doesn’t affect their entire life and cause future complications.